Muslim calendar year. It has a 30 year cycle with 11 leap years of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days. The islamic calendar is a lunar calendar consists of twelve months in a year and 354 days. The islamic calendar is the official calendar in many muslim countries especially saudi arabia. There are either 29 or 30 days in each month but they are not in order.
The former is a solar calendar so its year count differs substantially from that of the islamic lunar calendar. It is also called as muslim calendar or hijri calendar. Islamic hijri calendar year 2019 ce based on ummul qura system of saudi arabia. Various countries islamic denominations and groups have different ways of determining the start of the new year so the date may vary with location.
The islamic year has twelve months that are based on a lunar cycle. The year begins with the month of muharram 1st muharram being 2nd october 2016 and the current year is 1438. Muslims are not allowed to fight during muharram. Also called al hijra the islamic new year is the first day of muharram which is the first month in the islamic lunar calendar.
The persian and islamic calendar systems are otherwise unrelated. As the first month of the year muharram known as the month of remembrance and it is believed to be the most sacred month. The islamic new year starts off with muharram followed by safar rabi al awwal rabi al thani jumada al awwal jumada al thani rajab shaban ramadan shawwal dhul qadah and dhul hijja. It is based on a year of 12 months each month beginning approximately at the time of the new moon.
For example january 1 2016 fell into year 1437 ah in the lunar hijri calendar which corresponds to year 1394 in the solar hijri calendar. The months are alternately 30 and 29 days long except for the 12th dhu al ijjah the length of which is varied in a 30 year cycle intended to keep the calendar in step with the true phases of the moon. It also deviates up to about one or two days in the short term. In the long term it is accurate to one day in about 2500 solar years or 2570 lunar years.
As it is a lunar calendar there is an annual drift of 10 days which means that it is not synchronised with the seasons with the dates being repeated every 33 years. Other muslim countries use the gregorian calendar for civil purposes and only turn to the islamic calendar for religious purposes.